Fish Disease Diagnosis
Fish Disease Treatments
Ponds, Aquaria & Filtration



Menu
Fish Disease & Diagnosis
Fish Disease Treatments
Koi Keeping Basics
Ponds & Filtration
Case Histories
Water Quality & Testing
Using Your Microscope
Fish Disease Movies
Even More Movies
Useful Aquatic Links
Site Map
Topic Search
Frequently Asked Questions
Koi Health Book
Downloads
More Downloads
Site Sponsors
Pondrx.com - Fish medicines with usage guides

Koistuff.com - Hard goods and supplies as well as live fish to your door.

Suburban Water Gardens - Hard goods and supplies

Sho-Koi Food - Growth and immunity stimulating food

KoiZyme Anti-Ulcer - Added to your pond makes Aeromonas and Pseudomonas growth all bbut impossible

Aquadyne Bead Filtration - Among the first bead filters in the US constantly improved

Chloramine T

Chloramine-T and fish disease.

As chloramine-T dissolves it slowly breaks down to produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which in turn releases chlorine and oxygen. There is some uncertainty as to the active species of the breakdown products. Certainly, any chlorine  present is liable to have an effect against flukes and parasites such as Costia, Chilodonella, white spot and Trichodina, as well as bacteria. However, it is now believed that the chloramine-T ion is the major active species. It breaks down fairly rapidly and treatments can be repeated on a daily basis without the need for major water changes. As with most treatments, it is advisable to by-pass the filter during treatments, although nitrifying bacteria seem to be fairly tolerant of of this treatment. However it is a wise precaution to turn the filter off for 3-4 hours while treatments are in progress.

Affected by water hardness and pH

How effective is it?

My own experience of  pond treatments (usually doses <5mg /litre in hard, alkaline water) are varied and often disappointing. Follow-up examinations often show targeted parasites such as Trichodina and flukes are still present in substantial numbers after treatment. The usually recommended dose rate for ponds is given as 2mg/litre by most aquatic sources. I have serious doubts as to the efficacy of this dosing level in the typical hard alkaline water found in southern England.

Controlled treatments in clean, bare treatment tanks using doses of 10-16mg/ litre have shown more promise, having an effect against Gyrodactylus (skin flukes) and Dactylogyrus (gill flukes). This regime works well against Costia, but not quite as well against Trichodina. These trials were only started last year and more data is needed complete the picture. This page will be updated as more tests are carried out.  My initial conclusions are that it is probably better suited for tank treatments rather than pond treatment as conditions and dosages can be better controlled.

In the case of the pond treatments, more investigation needs to be carried out to determine an effective dose that allows for the effects of hard water and organic pollution. It is likely that current pond dosage rates of < 5mg/litre, particularly in hard, alkaline pond water, need to be increased to > 10 mg/litre and a follow up examination carried to determine the effectiveness of the treatment, with a view to re-dosing as necessary.

More on chloramine-T

Do not use it as a high dose dip. Its chemical action will cause serious damage to fish

Do not allow it to come into contact with metal surfaces as toxic compounds can be formed

Wear a particle mask and goggles when handling  to prevent injury to skin or eyes.

Toxicity is greatly increased in soft acidic water – only use the low dose.

Aerate the water vigorously during treatment

Turn off any UV lamps when using any pond or tank treatments

Ponds should be cleaned and vacuumed prior to treatment in order to reduce free organics that would affect treatment efficacy

The breakdown of chloramine-T is speeded up in sunlight, so treatments are best carried out evenings or on cloudy days.

See the fish disease section for more details about specific parasites or diseases

Useful conversions are:

ppm = mg/litre            i.e.  5 ppm = 5 mg / litre

mg / litre  x 3.785 = mg / gall (US)          

i.e  5 mg / litre = 18.9 mg / gall (US)

mg/ litre x 4.546 = mg / gall (UK)           

i.e  5 mg / litre = 22.7 mg / gall (UK)

To convert imperial gallons to US gallons

multiply by 1.2

 

Other useful figures: 

1 ounce = 28.35 grams

 

1% solution = 

10 ml per litre

10 gram per litre

38 gram per gall  (US) 

45 gram per gall (UK)   



Fish disease problems? Need some help? The help pages take you through the basics of the 'fish health work-up' diagnosis method and basic fish disease treatment methods.

90% of all health problems and fish deaths are caused by poor fish keeping! The key pages are essential reading for all beginners and intermediates who are serious about disease prevention.

Wife Beater

Sample download

Expanded Content by Dr. Erik Johnson, DrJohnson.com and Used with Permission; Frank Prince-Iles ©2009 All Rights Reserved