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Anesthetics for Euthanasia

When a condition is untreatable

As with all other animals, there are situations when the fish, for a variety of reasons, either fails to respond to treatment or has a condition that is untreatable. It is my belief that fish are capable of suffering  and therefore the most humane act in such a situation is to euthanase the fish.

Getting up on my soapbox - euthanasia should be a last resort and not simply a way to save on treatment.

Any form of euthanasia should cause death with the minimum of discomfort or suffering to the animal. Typical methods used are:


Anaesthetic overdose: Use 3-4 times the recommended dosage of any of the commonly used anaesthesia agents. Because of the risk of recovery the fish should be left in the solution for several hours.

Ideally, after losing consciousness in the anaesthetic solution the fish should have an injection of sodium pentobarbital so that death is instantaneous - but this is a restricted drug and not available to members of the public.  An alternative is to cut all the gill filaments on both sides once the fish is unconscious and allow the fish to bleed to death.  Clearly this can be distressing, but the fish feels no pain.

Decapitation: This is only suitable for smaller fish. It is assumed to cause instant unconsciousness.

Cranial concussion: A sharp, single blow to the head with enough force to damage the central nervous system. This may kill small fish outright, but larger fish may only be stunned - so it should be followed by a method such as bleeding, to cause death.

Sodium bicarbonate (baking powder or Alka Seltzer®): This is not an accepted form of euthanasia and will cause a degree of discomfort and stress, but it is readily available and can be used in the home if there are no other alternatives available. Again bleeding may be required once the fish has lost consciousness.

Poisoning: There are many chemicals that will effectively kill fish. None are considered humane and will all cause considerable distress unless the fish is euthanased first

Freezing: Place the fish in a comfortable container which will fit into your freezer. Make sure there is enough water for the fish to rest in. Place the container into the freezer. The fish is a poikilotherm, which means its entire metabolism, neurological function, etc. are all conducted at ambient temperatures. As the temperatures decline and finally achieve freezing levels, the fish will lose consciousness and pass away.



Fish disease problems? Need some help? The help pages take you through the basics of the 'fish health work-up' diagnosis method and basic fish disease treatment methods.

90% of all health problems and fish deaths are caused by poor fish keeping! The key pages are essential reading for all beginners and intermediates who are serious about disease prevention.

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Expanded Content by Dr. Erik Johnson, DrJohnson.com and Used with Permission; Frank Prince-Iles ©2009 All Rights Reserved