Case details 6th April 2000: Client phoned to say that one koi was laying on the bottom, not eating and was generally lethargic. The fish had been like this for several weeks but kept rallying around – could I tell him what the problem was? Lacking the confidence of many in the aquatic trade I said no – ..
Fish disease treatments are often the main threat Often the biggest threat to koi health are fish disease treatments! How do most disease treatments work? Should you treat the pond or the fish? Whatever you do take precautions. Pond “medications”? There are several considerations when using a pond ‘medication’ but undoubtedly the most basic is ..
Different answers If you ask six people the same question about koi keeping you will get six different answers. Sorting out the facts from the fallacies can be tricky! Beginner beware! In the equipment list I detail some basic equipment but I did not include two most important requirements for successful koi keeping: knowledge and experience. ..
Topical treatments for skin ulcers and lesions When topical treatments are used it is important to thoroughly debride the affected area and remove all necrotic tissue and debris from the lesion. This removes a source of continuing infection and helps the healing process to start. Where there are large areas of ulceration, topical treatments may ..
Potassium permanganate and fish disease Potassium permanganate is a useful fish disease treatment; acting against a range of protozoan parasites including Trichodina, Costia and Chilodonella, as well as monogenean flukes Gyrodactylus (skin flukes) and Dactylogyrus (gill flukes). In addition to being an effective anti-parasite treatment, potassium permanganate can also assist with bacterial gill disease and bacterial disease such as skin ulcers. It will ..
Bacterial disease and medicated food When a bacterial disease has been diagnosed, one treatment option is to use antibiotics. There are three main routes for antibiotic usage; baths, injections and medicated food. Using medicated food is an option that minimises handling and therefore stress – although affected fish may still need topical treatment for moderate ..
Malachite green and formalin treatments Malachite Green and Formalin are one of the main cornerstones of fish disease treatments having been used for many years against a range of parasites. They can be used together or separately as anti-parasite treatments against as Gyrodactylus (skin flukes), Dactylogyrus (gill flukes), Ichthyobodo (Costia), Trichodina , Chilodonella and Ichthyophthirius (white spot). The dynamic duo of MG&F is ..
Antibiotic injections: Injection of antibiotics gives the best success rate, especially when dealing with advanced bacterial infections. Injections give a measured amount of drug directly into the body, leading to high blood and tissue levels of antibiotic. The disadvantages are that handling will often cause stress and a certain amount of skill is necessary in ..
Quaternary ammonia compounds as fish disease treatments: Quaternary ammonia compounds (QACs) are powerful disinfectants with additional surfactant (detergent) action. As well as acting against bacteria, their surfactant action removes excess mucus containing parasites and bacteria. They are particularly suited to treating external bacterial infections such as Bacterial Gill Disease. In removing excess mucus from the ..
Chloramine-T and fish disease. As chloramine-T dissolves it slowly breaks down to produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which in turn releases chlorine and oxygen. There is some uncertainty as to the active species of the breakdown products. Certainly, any chlorine present is liable to have an effect against flukes and parasites such as Costia, Chilodonella, white spot and Trichodina, ..