Biological filtration for koi ponds, fish ponds and aquaria- why do we use filters? Let’s be clear from the start (excuse the pun), the primary reason for having a biological filtration system is not to provide clear water – although that might be a beneficial side effect. The purpose of using a filter is to improve ..
Koi are ammonia factories Although koi are easily the most attractive and endearing of fish, when it comes to hygiene they are not quite so appealing! In fact they are incredibly mucky, often called ‘water pigs’. Their size and insatiable appetite, together with the typical stocking levels of most ponds, means that copious amounts of ..
A natural process that aids fish keepers Nitrification is a biological process during which nitrifying bacteria convert toxic ammonia to less harmful nitrate. All we need to do is provide the right conditions for the nitrifying bacteria to thrive. It is important to bear in mind the potential threat to fish health if nitrification is ..
“Look after the water and the fish will look after themselves.” That just about sums up just how important water quality is to fish health. Indeed, unless conditions are right, fish health problems, disease and fish losses will follow as sure as night follows day. The birth of water How water is formed: oh, and by the ..
Nitrite, water quality and fish health Nitrite (NO2–) is formed when Nitrosomonas sp. bacteria oxidise ammonia produced by fish and decomposing organic matter. Although it is less toxic than ammonia, elevated levels still present a threat to fish health. Prolonged exposure to low levels can lead to stress and is often associated with stress-related disease such as ..
Water has many unusual properties that make it unlike any other liquid, some of which make it an ideal substance for aquatic habitats. Water molecule. One oxygen atom joined to two hydrogen atoms – the famous H2O It takes a lot of energy to bring about a change in water temperature. On a hot day ..
Water hardness is, from a fish’s viewpoint, one of the most important aspects of water quality as it affects so many areas of fish health. Despite this importance to both fish health and water quality, it is often a poorly understood subject. Indeed, many fish keepers never check water hardness. This seems particularly true of ..
The final cocktail The final cocktail we call “water” is complex and, as we have seen, varies with atmospheric and local land conditions. In general, water from our tap will contain: major ions such as sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, sulphates, chlorides and hydrogen carbonate. These are usually present in quantities of at least 1 mg/l. All ..
Rain and Water Quality Pure natural water is formed mainly by evaporation from seas and lakes. As warm water vapour rises it meets cooler air and condenses into water droplets (just like hot water vapour rising from a bath and condensing into droplets on the cool bathroom walls). The water droplets begin to dissolve a ..
Ammonia – the silent killer Ammonia is extremely toxic and even relatively low levels pose a threat to fish health. Ammonia is produced by fish and all other animals, including ourselves, as part of normal metabolism. Such is the toxicity, that most animals immediately convert it to a less harmful substance, usually urea, and excrete ..