Quaternary ammonia compounds as fish disease treatments: Quaternary ammonia compounds (QACs) are powerful disinfectants with additional surfactant (detergent) action. As well as acting against bacteria, their surfactant action removes excess mucus containing parasites and bacteria. They are particularly suited to treating external bacterial infections such as Bacterial Gill Disease. In removing excess mucus from the ..

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Chloramine-T and fish disease. As chloramine-T dissolves it slowly breaks down to produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which in turn releases chlorine and oxygen. There is some uncertainty as to the active species of the breakdown products. Certainly, any chlorine  present is liable to have an effect against flukes and parasites such as Costia, Chilodonella, white spot and Trichodina, ..

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When disease is suspected Any unusual behaviour or changes in physical condition often indicate a health problem. As already stated, it is impossible to make a firm diagnosis based purely on ‘symptoms’ or clinical signs. However, careful observation of symptoms helps to reduce the number of possible causes. See clinical signs- a guide to common problems Making ..

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Like little chemical factories Bacteria are minute organisms invisible to the naked eye. There are many different types of bacteria and they are probably the most diverse group of organisms on the planet – each like a little chemical factory. Very few species are pathogenic (disease-causing). Those that are harmful can be divided into two ..

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A common but lethal disease The ciliated parasite Ichthyophthirius, more commonly known as white spot or Ich, is a very common fish disease capable of affecting virtually all fish species. Ich has a fairly  complex life cycle that has a major bearing on treatment methods. The white spot trophont (photo below)  forms a nodule under the skin ..

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Bacterial ulcers a common, but difficult problem Bacterial ulcers are a common fish disease problem, particularly with ornamental pond fish such as goldfish and koi. They are one of the most difficult problems to deal with, especially if large numbers of fish are affected. Dealing effectively with bacterial ulcers can be time-consuming and really requires ..

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Extremely irritating It is not uncommon to find small populations of the parasite Trichodina on fish. At low levels they don’t pose a threat to fish health. Unlike many parasites  it doesn’t actually feed on fish; these parasites only use the fish host as a home and means of transport! However, in large numbers they are extremely ..

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