Quaternary ammonia compounds as fish disease treatments: Quaternary ammonia compounds (QACs) are powerful disinfectants with additional surfactant (detergent) action. As well as acting against bacteria, their surfactant action removes excess mucus containing parasites and bacteria. They are particularly suited to treating external bacterial infections such as Bacterial Gill Disease. In removing excess mucus from the ..
Chloramine-T and fish disease. As chloramine-T dissolves it slowly breaks down to produce hypochlorous acid (HOCl), which in turn releases chlorine and oxygen. There is some uncertainty as to the active species of the breakdown products. Certainly, any chlorine present is liable to have an effect against flukes and parasites such as Costia, Chilodonella, white spot and Trichodina, ..
Fish disease is a complex subject It is often believed that fish are less complex than other animals, and therefore disease diagnosis is simpler. Unfortunately, this is one of the big fish keeping myths! The simple fact is that it is impossible to make a full and accurate diagnosis without carrying out a basic examination ..
When disease is suspected Any unusual behaviour or changes in physical condition often indicate a health problem. As already stated, it is impossible to make a firm diagnosis based purely on ‘symptoms’ or clinical signs. However, careful observation of symptoms helps to reduce the number of possible causes. See clinical signs- a guide to common problems Making ..
Like little chemical factories Bacteria are minute organisms invisible to the naked eye. There are many different types of bacteria and they are probably the most diverse group of organisms on the planet – each like a little chemical factory. Very few species are pathogenic (disease-causing). Those that are harmful can be divided into two ..
Fish disease and antibiotics Antibiotic baths or dips provide another route for the treatment of bacterial fish diseases. However, baths and dips are not as effective as medicated food or injections for treating systemic infections or advanced ulceration. In general the best results come from antibiotic injections. Baths and dips are probably best used for ..
Fish disease is a fact of life and in common with all pet owners, fish-keepers need to be able to recognize the signs of ill-health in their fishy charges. These pages give a comprehensive view of common diseases including typical signs of disease and how to systematically diagnosis both health problems and their causes. An ..
A common but lethal disease The ciliated parasite Ichthyophthirius, more commonly known as white spot or Ich, is a very common fish disease capable of affecting virtually all fish species. Ich has a fairly complex life cycle that has a major bearing on treatment methods. The white spot trophont (photo below) forms a nodule under the skin ..
Bacterial ulcers a common, but difficult problem Bacterial ulcers are a common fish disease problem, particularly with ornamental pond fish such as goldfish and koi. They are one of the most difficult problems to deal with, especially if large numbers of fish are affected. Dealing effectively with bacterial ulcers can be time-consuming and really requires ..
Extremely irritating It is not uncommon to find small populations of the parasite Trichodina on fish. At low levels they don’t pose a threat to fish health. Unlike many parasites it doesn’t actually feed on fish; these parasites only use the fish host as a home and means of transport! However, in large numbers they are extremely ..